Bibliography / References

Persometrics' services rely on the research reported in the following articles, among other.

This review article summarises current knowledge on moderating and intervening factors in human cortisol stress responses and offers recommendations for future research designs.

Published in: Psychoneuroendocrinology

A researcher at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Nicolas Rohleder discusses the phase between acute and chronic stress, as understood and covered by current literature..


Published in Psychoneuroendocrinology

Discusses benefits of sampling salivary biomarkers and gives wanings about drawing conclusions about physical health from such biomarkers without complete understanding and without considering additional factors.


Published in Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences

Evans, Smyth, Thorn, Hucklebridge and Clow from the Stress Research Group in Westminster measured salivary cortisol secretion rate at 5 minute intervals, in 65 individuals. Their study results casts light on the importance of exact timings in the sampling procedure, and provide more evidence of an ultradian secretion rate being more informative than total secretion in certain illnesses.


Published in Psychoneuroendocrinology

A review to illucidate the distinction between acute and chronic stress on at which point their effect on the immune system becomes unfavorable.

Author: Nicolas Rohleder.

Published in Psychoneuroendocrinology

This study looks at individual differences in anxiety and depression and how they might affect the type of response of the HPA axis (hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis). Some 140 participants underwent an acute stress test and the questionnaire data did indeed predict recovery (return to baseline) of cortisol.


Published in Psychoneuroendocrinology

Authors: Fiksdal, Alexander; Hanlin, Luke; Kuras, Yuliya; Gianferante, Danielle; Chen, Xuejie; Thoma, Myriam V., and Rohleder, Nicolas

Collaborative project with researchers from CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Beijing ; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Affective and Social Cognitive Science, Shenzhen University, Guangdong and finally Department of Psychology, University of Westminster, London. The researchers attempt to show, as the title suggests, that there is a link between the cortisol awakening response and response inhibition. The awakening response was associated with a higher false alarm rate in a so-called Go-NoGo task in 49 males, but a large proportion or participants had to be exluded due to abnormal cortisol awakening response and outsider datapoints were also not removed. No causality is inferred. Further research is warranted.

Published in Psychoneuroendocrinology

Authors: Shi, Xia Sun, Xiaofang; Yao, Zhuxi; Yuan, Yiran; Wu, Jianhui; Clow, Angela

The study conducted by Eran Segal and colleagues at the Weizman institute suggests that we are asking the wrong question when searching for the right diet and should instead be looking for individualised diets. The researchers used blood sugar spikes as a biomarker for food reactivity and followed some 800 participants longitudinally showing that people differ in their response to food stuffs. An experimental follow-up (diet-intervention) confirmed: the one and same food could have opposite spike patterns for two people. Persometrics finds this a compelling first step to individualised nutrition, and especially promising that the authors incorporate the microbiome in their research, which has been used for our stress reports and has also figured on our social media outlets.

Published in: Current Opinion in Biotechnology

Karine Spiegel, Rachel Leproult, Mireille L’Hermite-Balériaux, Georges Copinschi, Plamen d. Penev, and Eve van Cauter from Universities of Chicago and Brussels (ULB) investigated links between sleep quality (notably how long the participants were allowed to sleep: 4, 8 or 12 hours) and the endocrine system. Sleep restriction decreased leptin, and increased evening cortisol, even when people did not perceive the restriction as stressful. Showing that sleep may have an effect on appetite and in turn obesity. 12 hour slots (no sleep restriction) produced better biomarkers even though participants only slept just over 9 hours in average.

Taken together, we use this information in our guidance of stress reports and also for current development of our sleep reports.

Published in: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

Medical researchers in Denmark showed disturbance in daily melatonin rhythm in patients with diabetic retinopathy

Published in: Sleep Medicine

Authors: Ba-ali, Shakoor; Brøndsted, Adam Elias; Andersen, Henrik Ullits; Sander, Birgit; Jennum, Jørgen, and Lund-andersen, Henrik

This study was carried out by two of Persometrics's very own (hosted and funded by the Brain Mind Institute at the EPFL). Feel free to contact us for a copy. We showed that dominant males (as measured through questionnaires tapping the wish and propensity to seek to dominate others) are faster than their less dominant counter-parts. The speed advantage was shown in both behavioural tasks (of which there were a variety) and in physiological measurements (EEG). It is believed that this fast reaction time creates an advantage which is what leads men to be treated differently by others, in turn creating the dominant personality trait. We say dominant "men" because we did not study females, not because it does not apply to females. Questionnaire will be available on persometrics.com soon!

Authors: Janir da Cruz*, João Rodrigues*, John C Thoresen*, Vitaly Chicherov, Patrícia Figueiredo, Michael H Herzog, Carmen Sandi

* = ("joint first authors")

Published in: Cerebral Cortex

Giauque and colleagues (from University of Lausanne and University of Geneva) report an extensive study wherein they collected data from questionnaires of some 1700 respondents (more than 7000 were sent out). A take-home message is that perceived stress may mediate the link between job resources and turnouver intention in large international organisations. Changing our perception of stressors gets us a long way.

Published in: International Journal of Human Resource Management

Authors: Giauque, D., Anderfuhren-Biget, S., and Varone, F.

Explores causation of demands and cortisol awakening response and shows the interaction with affect/emotional states the days prior to the sampling in relation to the CAR.


Frenetic, underchallenged, and worn-out subtypes of burnout are proposed. The authors of this chapter look into prelavence in students too, reporting a study where 509 university students filled out several questionnaires, including adapted versions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Burnout Clinical Subtypes Questionnaire. The study three burnout subtypes was also found in students. and further prposoe differen pathways to burnout.


Published in: Stress

This meta-analysis, performed by Emma Adam and colleagues at Northwestern University (Illinois, USA) was used as background reading for stress profiling. It includes studies on major depressive disorder anxiety PTSD, and other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Stress manipulation included use of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) or other psychosocial stress tasks. Sex differences were found in stress reactivity, and this depended on the psychiatric disorder.


Published in: Psychoneuroendocrinology

Smyth and her colleagues at Westminster (London) show the importance of correct timing and on self-report time estimates and their impact on the cortisol awakening response. A delay from cortisol secretion to its detection in saliva was also confirmed. Their findings have been helpful to guide the sampling timings of our own reports.


Published in: Psychoneuroendocrinology

Gilda Ennis, Scott Moffat and Christopher Hertzog performed cognitive testing (episodic memory, working memory and processing speed) and checked for links between cortisol secretion patterns. Further demographics were also included in analyses. We have used this article to help shape procedures and parameters in our stress report.


Published in: Brain and Cognition

This multidisciplinary study, crossing nursing, mental health, psychiatry and biomedical sciences departments at University of Alberta shows how cortisol concentrations and cortisol patterns are linked with memory performance and brain structure (more specifically volume of subsections of the hippocampus)


Published in: Journal of Affective Disorders

This study conducted by researchers at McGill (Montreal) confirms both the usefulness and complexity of the cortisol awakening response as a biomarker associated with mental illnesses and their treatment. This has been used in our stress reports.

Published in the Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice

The researchers report predicting factors of different stress-related illnesses, with a focus on the HPA axis.

Published in Journal of Abnormal Psychology

Another study confirms the links between cortisol awakening response and neural mechanisms underlying cognitive function and memory.

Published in International Journal of Psychophysiology

Richard Lynn's questionnaire follows a McClelland approach. The questionnaire, which correlates with a variety of personality constructs as well as external criteria, has been used in our Stress Reports.

Published in the British Journal of Psychology

Georg Alpers and colleagues who study Anxiety disorders and Behavior therapy at University of Salzburg looked into cortisol response in people who have a phobia against driving. As was expected, cortisol response to driving exposure followed both subjective ratings and could be predicted by prior knowledge regarding the phobia. This research has been used for our stress reactivity test.

Published in: Psychoneuroendocrinology

Bergdahl and Bergdahl at the The Arctic University of Norway studied more than 1000 individuals and show links between gender, anxiety, medication and salivary flow. Their research has guided our sampling procedures and data sense-making.

Published in: Psychoneuroendocrinology

This research from University of Texas and Kansas State University, by Best, Stapleton and Downey, relates Burnout to Core self-evaluations, Job satisfaction and perceived organizational constraints and has been important for our stress reports and psychometric profiling. The authors also give information on how to deal with burnout depending on situational and personal constraints.

Published in: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology

Research conducted at University College London by Bhattacharyya (UCL), Molloy and Steptoe (National University of Ireland, Galway), relating cortisol to coronary heart disease and depression. Important to our stress reports.

Published in: Journal of Psychosomatic Research

Boesch and colleagues at University of Zurich, ETH Zurich and University of Western Ontario, show a link between cortisol in hair and stress, humidity, temperature as well as socioeconomic factors and physiological data such as sweating. Stress through military trainig could not be detected in cortisol concentrations in hair, whereas meteorological data could predict some variance, showing that this technique is experimental and requires stringent control of external variables. Inter-subject factors predicted concentrations as well. Persometrics’s take is that this technique is best used to compare one’s own state across different times.

Published in: Stress

Harris, Endresen, Tangen, Hansen, Garde, and Eriksen at the universities of Oslo, Bergen, and Copenhagen performed an extensive screening for psychiatric disorders and showed no effect on the cortisol parameters of interest. Limited findings cannot be used to draw conclusions because there were too many confounding factors in this study, no control group, no initial group definition of disorders, and a limited age group (which could explain why there were no signifant results).

Published in: Psychiatry Research

This study by Broadley & Korszun and colleagues was conducted on 36 participants between hospitals at Torquay, London, Birmingham and Cardiff and shows that blocking cortisol production with metyrapone stopped baroreflex sensitivity impairment, thus suggesting that the link between stress and coronary heart disease and sudden cardiac death is mediated by cortisol, the stress hormone.

Published in: Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Cross-sectional study by Cañadas-De la Fuente and colleagues on burnout in nurses. Looks at risk-factors and prevalence. Used in our stress reports.

Published in: International Journal of Nursing Studies

Study by Candy, Chalder and colleagues from Department of Immunology the School of Medicine and Institute of Psychiatry in London, looking at cortisol as a risk factor for Chronic fatigue. Results were inconclusive as regards to biological mechanisms responsible for the link between infectious mononucleosis and chronic fatigue from this study: rather, the factors that best predicted the illness changed over time.

Published in: Psychological Medicine

This research shows the prevalence of stress in Switzerland.

Published in: SECO

Reviews boundaries of burnout against depression and anxiety, especially in the academic field.

Published in: Revista Latinoamericana de Psicologia

This meta-analysis by Chida and Steptoe looks at the link between the Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) and a range of psychosocial difficulties, including Burnout and fatigue; Depression and anxiety; HPA axis; Job stress; Positive well-being; and Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They show how predictions of Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) has been inconclusive in a range of studies. However, their findings point to an important distinction of looking at the different ways of analysing CAR (respect to baseline or to ground, CARi or CARtot). Persometrics always combines Psychometric data when making sense of hormone data.

Published in: Biological Psychology

Absence Management Report in partnership with The CIPD is the professional body for HR and people development. Used by Persometrics as general background reading (see For Business page)

Published in: Cipd

Angela Clow, Frank Hucklebridge, and Lisa Thorn’s research on diurnal rhythms of cortisol, its Awakening Response and the Suprachiasmatic nucleus. This paper has been used to shape our understanding of the complex cortisol awakening response and in turn to guide our Stress reports.

Published in: International Review of Neurobiology

Cohen and Williamson’s data from some 2300 participants provided norms and shaped our stress questionnaires.

Published in: The Social Psychology of Health

Review by Karl Anderson (University of Texas) of the many papers showing the impact of diets (in terms of both micronutrients and micronutrients) on drug bioavailability and metabolism. This confirms the importance of food in health; if they do not trump medicinal treatment they do at least interact with how we may respond to it

Published in: Clinical Pharmacokinetics

Cynthia Cordes, Thomas Dougherty and Michael Blum from Binghamton U, University of Missouri and Truman State University, provide data and path analysis looking at other variables that has been useful to shape our Stress reports.

Published in: Journal of Organisational Behaviour

This Viewpoint by Cryan and Mahony at University College Cork Stress gives a breakdown on enteric bacterial fingerprints and the importance of the microbiome in mental and physical wellness.

Published in: Neurogastroenterology and Motility

We value this research from Leiden University medical Center and Leiden University (NL) which shows that basal cortisol cannot predict burnout on large scale on its own, nor can the CAR predict burnout after the fact (which is what is shown in correlational studies). We hold the importance of psychometric data in conjunction with hormonal, and point to the cortisol index which is important immediately before, not after, a burnout.

Authors: Danhof-Ponta, Tineke van Veenb, Frans G. Zitman

Published in: Journal of Psychosomatic Research

This study from Utrecht by C. S. De Kloet and colleagues looked at Corticosteroid binding globulin; Cortisol; Dexamethasone suppression test in post traumatic stress disorder. Through salivary testing, differences in total secretion and secretion patterns were found between patients and controls.

Published in: Psychoneuroendocrinology

This study by De Vries, Michielsen and Van Heck at Tilburg University guided psychometric testing and was used in stress reports.

Published in: Occupational and Environmental Medicine

This review of neuroimaging stress studies, written by Dedovic, D'Aguiar, and Pruessner, points to the importance of the prefrontal and limbic regions the psychosocial stress, and was used general background reading.

Published in: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry

This experimental study by Demling and DeSanti at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, compared dietary and exercise interventions on overweight police officers. The outcome points to the importance of macronutrients and individual differences, and has guided our lifestyle advice in stress reports.

Published in: Annals of nutrition & metabolism

This study by Ditzen et al compared men with or without social support and their psychological and physiological response to stress. This research featured on our social media outlets.

Published in: Journal of Psychosomatic Research

Selection of 20 items of the IPIP database by Donnellan, Oswald and Baird with colleagues at Rice University has been used in our Psychometric profiling. You can perform this test on our website.

Published in: Psychological Assessment

Background reading for adrenal stress profiling. Ehlert, Gaab and Heinrichs at the University of Zurich reports how cortisol parameters are linked to different psychiatric disorders

Published in: Biological Psychology

Background reading for adrenal stress profiling.

Published in: Life Sciences

Stress reports.

Published in: Psychoneuroendocrinology

Stress reports and psychometric profiling.


Published in: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

Background for stress reports.

Published in: Psychoneuroendocrinology

Psychometric profiling.

Published in: Psychosomatic Medicine

Background reading for stress reports. Shaped our sampling procedure.

Published in: International Journal of Psychophysiology

Used to shape our stress reports

Published in: International Journal of Nursing Studies

Used to shape our Stress reports, notably regarding personalised lifestyle advice.

Published in: Journal of Nutrition

Stress reports, psychometric profiling

Published in: Health Psychology

Stress reports

Published in: Psychoneuroendocrinology

Background reading.

Background reading. This thesis provides good references and insights for the stress reports.

Background reading for stress reports, especially on personalised lifestyle advice.

Published in: Psychoneuroendocrinology

Psychometric profiling, burnout, stress reports.

Published in: Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied

Background reading for stress reports

Published in: Psychoneuroendocrinology

Guided our cortisol sampling procedure.

Published in: Psychoneuroendocrinology

Provides some background reading for stress reports.

Published in: Experimental Aging Research: An INternational Journal Devoted to the Scientific Study of the Aging Process

Psychometric profiling.

Published in: Personnel Psychology

Background reading for our stress profiling reports.

Published in: Psychoneuroendocrinology

Background reading for our stress profiling reports.

Published in: Biological Research for Nursing

Psychometric profiling and stress profiling reports.

Published in: Journal of Psychosomatic Research

This study describes one questionnaire that shaped our psychometric and adrenal profiling.

Published in: Psychosomatic medicine

Stress profiling report.

Published in: J Physiol Pharmacol

Background reading for stress profiling.

Published in: Biological Psychology

Background reading for stress profiling.

Published in: Psychoneuroendocrinology

Background reading for stress profiling.

Published in: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice

Background reading for stress profiling.

Published in: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice

Background reading for stress profiling.

Published in: Psychosomatic Medicine

This research from the university of Colorado has been featured on our social media outlets.

Published in: Emotion

Stress profile reports. Used for personalised dietary feedback.

Published in: Medical hypotheses

This research has shaped our stress profile reports, both in questionnaires and in feedback.

Published in: British Journal of Nutrition

Summary

Background reading for the stress profile reports.


Published in: Psychoneuroendocrinology

Summary

Background reading for the stress profile reports.


Published in: Progress in Brain Research

Summary

Background reading for the stress profile reports. Hormone data alone is not enough, as these authors show.


Published in: Psychoneuroendocrinology

Summary

Background reading for the stress profile reports.


Published in: European Journal of Sports and Exercise Science

Summary

Background reading for the stress profile reports.


Published in: BMC Psychology

Summary

Background reading for the stress profile reports.

Summary

Background reading for the stress profile reports.


Published in: Sports Medicine

Background reading for the stress profile reports.


Published in: Psychosomatic Medicine

Background reading for the stress profile reports.


Published in: Psychoneuroendocrinology

Summary

Background reading.


Published in: Seco

Summary

Background reading for stress profile reports.


Published in: British Journal of Psychiatry

Summary

Background reading for stress profile reports.


Published in: Psychosomatic Medicine

Summary

Background reading for stress profile reports.


Published in: Psychoneuroendocrinology

Summary

Psychometric profiling.


Published in: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

Summary

General reading.

Published in: Journal of the National Cancer Institute

Summary

Diet and lifestyle, but also individual differences are important, for combatting the detrimental effects of stress.

Published in: Physiology and Behavior

Summary

Psychometric and stress profiling. This was also featured on our Emotional Intelligence questionnaire.

Published in: Annals of Neurosciences

Summary

Stress profile reports, individualised lifestyle advice.


Published in: Metabolism

Summary

Background reading for stress profiling.


Published in: Occupational and Environmental Medicine

This report guided our sampling procedures.


Published in: Psychoneuroendocrinology

Background reading for stress profiling.


Published in: Developmental Psychology

Summary

Background reading for stress profiling.


Published in: European Jouranl of Applied Physiology

Summary

Background reading for stress profiling.


Published in: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine

Background reading for stress profiling.


Published in: Psychological Reports

Summary

Background reading for stress profiling.


Published in: Psychoneuroendocrinology

Summary

Background reading for stress profiling.


Published in: Work and Stress

Published in: European Neuropsychopharmacology

Psychometric profiling. This study shows norms for males and females in systematizing and empathizing and is featured in our empathy questionnaire.


Published in: Journal of Research in Personality

This research on gut microbiome composition was used to guide our feedback for lifestyle advice. The study characterized fecal samples and looked at the link between diet and different types of bacteria enterotypes, especially Bacteroides and Prevotella.

Authors: Wu, Gary D; Chen, Jun; Hoffmann, Christian; Bittinger, Kyle; Chen, Ying-yu; Sue, A; Bewtra, Meenakshi; Knights, Dan; Walters, William a; Knight, Rob; Gilroy, Erin; Gupta, Kernika; Baldassano, Robert; Nessel, Lisa; and Li, Hongzhe


Published in: Science

This study, which actually looked at gender differences in attitudes to choosing to study science in Switzerland, was used to obtain Swiss norms in our empathy questionnaire.


Published in: International Journal of Science Education